What Ancient Europeans think about Africans in Antiquity

The widely-anticipated biblical epic Exodus: Gods and Kings has recently been banned in Morocco, a move which prompted a similar response from the Egyptian government. According to the Gaber Asfour, the Egyptian culture minister, the film is shrouded with historical inaccuracies, scenes which ‘totally contradict historical facts.’ Asfour goes further, suggesting that the film ‘gives a Zionist view of history and contains historical inaccuracies.’ Whether this is indeed the case is open to discussion; after all isn’t Hollywood solely interested in producing exciting, relevant Blockbusters which appeal largely to White Suburbia? Surely the Hollywood director is an exemplar for the innocent agent, the one fully devoted to granting his audience the clarity of truth? Those who have been able to rely upon the sceptical eye, which has revealed the extent to which psychological warfare has been waged, can see beyond the façade – they know exactly why these perpetuations of sheer myths are often accepted without a single question.

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It was only last month when the Australian media mogul, Rupert Murdoch, revealed his sentiments about the issue:

”Moses film attacked on Twitter for all white cast. Since when are Egyptians not white? All I know are.”

In response to the twitter backlash his admission received, Murdoch went further to claim that:

”Everybody attacks last tweet. Of course Egyptians are Middle Eastern, but far from black. They treated blacks as slaves.’

Murdoch’s ignorance is conspicuous. Firstly, just because the current inhabitants of Egypt, and indeed most of North Africa are of Bedouin descent, need not mean they have always been so. The endless conquests and frequent migrations by various ethnicities can explain this. Indeed the Arab conquest of 647AD in Africa (and several regions within the Middle East) resulted in a multitude of dark-skinned tribes seeking refuge in the western regions of Africa (Williams 1994). Ask any Elder of the different West African tribes and they all tell the same story: whether from Ancient Kemet, Mecca, or Sudan – our ancestors are said to have fled eastwards to preserve their idiosyncratic spiritual customs from the cusp of Islamic conquerors. Murdoch’s assertion that current Egyptians are ‘Middle Eastern,’ and hence have always been, is akin to claiming that Europeans residing in the US are the ancestors of the great civilizations developed within the Americas. It is akin to claiming that the French are the progenitors of the Incas – or that the Spanish were the forefathers of the Mayans.

Secondly, why must Murdoch feel the need to remind us that blacks are ‘treated … as slaves.’ It is tedious being reminded of the great legacy of slavery. During the Black History Month’s of the past, we all have been made aware of the great achievements of freed slaves who astonished the Western world with their surprising eloquence and grace. We have all heard of Olaudah Equiano and the like. But rarely have we heard the names of great African kings – such as Mansa Musa – whose power and wealth at the time were not eclipsed.

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Several Hollywood funded films have portrayed great figures of Antiquity with Western actors and actresses. From Elizabeth Taylor in Cleopatra (1934) and Angelina Jolie in the recent adaptation (2014); to the Gods of Egypt (2013) which figured an entirely European cast. At first glance, this is not an ostensible problem. Cultures have a habit of reflecting their own race within the various fields of art, even if the depictions are historically inaccurate. The blue-eyed, blond Jesus has been popular in several European countries — but in Ethiopia Jesus is illustrated with big brown penetrating eyes and a majestic afro. Nonetheless, the social engineers of Hollywood are certain of the effect such films have on the populace by large. To truly gauge the influence such depictions of ‘white purity’ has on the subconscious mind one only needs to watch the study of the black American children who appeared to unanimously prefer white dolls to the dolls which shared the complexion of theirs. Influences which are further perpetrated by scholars who continue to denounce the plausibility of greatness once residing within Africa.

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A BACKDROP

In the last few centuries many European scholars have gone to great lengths to emphasise just how useless the ’Negro’ really is:

” In Negro life the characteristic point is the fact that consciousness has not yet attained to the realization of any substantial objective existence-as for example, God, or Law-in which the interest of man’s volition is involved and in which he realizes his own being. THE NEGRO, AS ALREADY OBSERVED, EXHIBITS THE NATURAL MAN IN HIS COMPLETELY WILD AND UNTAMED STATE. We must lay aside all thought of reverence and morality-all that we call feeling-if we would rightly comprehend him; there is nothing harmonious with humanity to be found in this type of character. The copious and circumstantial accounts of Missionaries completely confirm this, and Mahommedanism appears to be the only thing which in any way brings the Negroes within the range of culture.” [Hegel, The Philosophy of History (New York: Dover, 1956), 93.]

What’s more Hegel attests that:
”At this point we leave Africa, not to mention it again .FOR IT IS NO HISTORICAL PART OF THE WORLD; it has no movement or development to exhibit… Egypt will be considered in reference to the passage of the human mind from its Eastern to its Western phase, but it does not belong to the African Spirit. What we properly understand by Africa, is the UNHISTORICAL, UNDEVELOPED SPIRIT, still involved in the conditions of mere nature, and which had to be presented here only as on the threshold of the World’s History.” [Ibid. pg 99]

Georg Hegel, perhaps best known for his treatise on the dialectics—and subsequently the development of Marxism—echoed the sentiments of several esteemed scholars of his day. Hegel’s analysis of the intrinsic inferiority of the ‘completely wild and untamed’ African is one which was (and still is) shared by a number of spheres of European social life. From the German Eugenicists, whom relied upon ‘science’, to justify the decimation of a 100,000 Africans in Namibia; to the countless Imperialists who hurled ‘the veil of falsification over historical truth’ to vindicate their—penetration into the heart of darkness—plundering gold, diamonds, ivory and millions of slaves (Diop 1991; 1). To this very day, many European scholars continue to ignore the past contributions of the ancient African – so often so that the onus has been left to the Afro-centred scholar to reveal the former glories of our forefathers.

The last century has seen the revival of African-centred scholars devoted to shattering the White Myth – the whitewash of our history. The Senegalese polymath, Cheik Anta Diop, was perhaps more integral than any other during this period. Diop, whose work spanned from physics, to anthropology, to history, has repeatedly acknowledged how ‘the new Egyptological ideology, born out at the opportune moment, reinforced the theoretical bases of imperialist ideology (Diop 1991; 1).’ Diop has often been labelled as a Pan-African racialist, whose focal concern was to propagate the inherent superiority of the black man. This is not surprising. Earnest, yet innocuous, discussion of the achievements of ancient Africans is often greeted with ridicule: so much so even those of African descent are willing to embrace the fabrications–the utter lies–that are propagated by the Western hegemony.

But we need not rely upon the African-centred scholar. We need not fall culpable of charges of pan-African racialism. There are several eminent Europeans who have made such similar admissions. Whilst many of these admissions were made by Greek scholars, there are still a number of startling recognitions which have been made by more recent European historians. In an age—where Ethiopians were ‘said to be the tallest and handsomest men in the whole world (Herodotus 430BCE; Book III)’ and ‘noted as much for their virtue as their appearance of having a burnt face’ — admissions of the sort may initially appear astonishing (Snowden 1970). But these statements were casual observations during an era where racism was not manufactured to conceal truth, and subsequently engineered to prolong the oppression the African has become accustomed to. Perhaps more surprising are the observations made by those in the last century, who were undoubtedly considered radical and whose work were often greeted ‘in [Victorian] England with the truly orthodox conspiracy of silence (Massey 1907; Preface).’

I shall not leave you with an exhaustive list of quotes, only mentioning the ones most significant. The Greek scholars of antiquity, by large focused on the customs of the inhabitants of Eastern Africa. Many of these historians attempted to provide a holistic image of the African life, commenting on the various spheres of life which they encountered during they’re travels. They discussed their diets, spiritual customs, physical make-up, societal interactions and ultimately their alleged history. Many of these historians even allege that the Greeks—which according to the current Western world, helped underpin the progression of Roman Civilisation and hence current day Western hegemony—owe a great debt to East. No not China or India, but Africa.

During this essay, quotations regarding African contributions to Ancient Egypt (Kemet) will be focused upon. There are countless other admissions made by European scholars which reveal the extent to which the world owes a great debt to the Ancient Africans. Frankly, any exhaustive compilation of Ancient African achievements would leave the reader beset by boredom.

Whether it be in India, China, Great Britain or Scandinavia – our forefathers reached every envisigeable stretch of the Planet, and accordingly, they left an indelible footprint which can be traced to this very day. Modern interpretations of Science, Ethics, Occultism and Religion (Yes — including Christianity!) bare an uncanny resemblance to the beliefs held by the Ancient Egyptian.

Nevertheless, by focusing on what the great European scholars of antiquity wrote we are able to deduce two important postulates:

Firstly, we are able to dismantle the ‘White Myth’ regarding the roots of Ancient Egypt. We are also able to dismantle any other ludicrous claim—such as Kemet being inhabited by a host of aliens—which ignore the contributions made by ancient Africans towards all other succeeding civilisations.

Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, we are able to reveal the extent to which the West owes a great debt to our ancestors. This should empower the African unaware of the great legacy established by his forefathers.

 

THE DEBT THE WEST OWES TO THE EAST

“the names of nearly all the gods came to Greece from Egypt . . . for the names of all the gods have been known in Egypt from the beginning of time . . . It was the Egyptians too who originated, and taught the Greeks . . . ceremonial meeting, processions and liturgies . . . The Egyptians were also the first to assign each month and each day to a particular deity, and to foretell the date of a man’s birth, his character, his fortunes, and the day of his death . . . The Egyptians, too have made more use of omens and prognostics than any other nation. . .” [Herodotus, The Histories, 149-150; 152; 159].

Herodotus states the influence the Egyptians were able impart in the Spiritual Sciences which enabled them to maintain their dominance for more than 3 millennia. These sciences included Astrology, Alchemy, Architecture, Magic, Sacred Mathematics, Spirituality and Religion. Today, many of these sciences are often ridiculed as outdated pseudo sciences, disciplines followed by manic mystics who reject the reality of manifest physicality. But this is not the case. Sadly, these sciences have been adapted by the powers that be, with the current ‘science’ – and it’s emphasis towards materialism – inculcating half-truths and blinding the masses from the phenomena which underpins the reality we interact with.

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Greek historian, Diodorus, who was said to have travelled to Egypt around 60BC, shared the historical insights made by earlier scholars:

“Now they relate that of all people the Aithiopians [Ethiopians] were the earliest, and say that the proofs of this are clear. That they did not arrive as immigrants but are the natives of the country and therefore rightly are called authochthonous is almost universally accepted. That those who live in the South are likely to be the first engendered by the earth is obvious to all. For as it was the heat of the sun that dried up the earth while it was still moist, at the time when everything came into being, and caused life, they say it is probable that it was the region closest to the sun that first bore animate beings”. [Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History, Books II.35 – IV.58, Translated by C.H. Oldfather, Harvard University Press, 2000]

The aforementioned claim should not be a surprise. 160,000 year old fossilized skulls have been unearthed in East Africa. These discoveries reflect the scientific hypothesis–even purported by European scientists–that human life began in Africa. These fossilized skulls are said to be the oldest anatomically similar to that of modern humans. If this is indeed the case, by denying the supposed achievements of ancient Africans, we would be by default suggesting that Africans (and humanity) were marked by profound unproductively until the advent of Western Civilization, more than 2000 years ago. These European descendents of the primordial humans, as some readings of Darwinism may imply, had ‘evolved’ into modern man. As a consequence, man could read, write, philosophise, rationalise, love, she could intuit, calculate, reflect, even display episodes of empathy – all activities we would naturally equate with the capabilities of humans. But until this evolution, man was a barbaric fiend, who contributed little to human development – a being whose uncanny similarities to the chimpanzee had to be noted. This belief would have been rejected by a number of notable Greek scholars, as Diodorus acknowledges below:

“They further write that it was among them that people were first taught to honor the gods and offer sacrifices and arrange processions and festivals and perform other things by which people honor the divine. For this reason their piety is famous among all men, and the sacrifices among the Aithiopians are believed to be particularly pleasing to the divinity,”

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“The Aithiopians [Ethiopians] say that the Egyptians are settlers from among themselves and that Osiris was the leader of the settlement.The customs of the Egyptians, they say, are for the most part Aithiopian, the settlers having preserved their old traditions. For to consider the kings gods, to pay great attention to funeral rites, and many other things, are Aithiopian practices, and also the style of their statues and the form of their writing are Aithiopian. Also the way the priestly colleges are organized is said to be the same in both nations. For all who have to do with the cult of the gods, they maintain, are [ritually] pure: the priests are shaved in the same way, they have the same robes and the type of scepter shaped like a plough, which also the kings have, who use tall pointed felt hats ending in a knob, with the snakes that they call the asp (aspis) coiled round them.” [Ibid]

The Romans after the conquest of 30BC, unlike the Greeks before them, were more hostile to the customs of the ancient Africans. Nevertheless, this debt–the West owes to the East–has been acknowledged by some of their scholars. Stephanus of Byzantium made this evident with the claim that:
“Ethiopia was the first established country on earth; and the Ethiopians were the first who introduced the worship of the gods, and who established laws.’’ [Gary Johnson 1939 Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization (Pt 1)]

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From the aforementioned observations a number of inductions can be made. Firstly, racism–as is understood today–was a rarity. The status granted by outsiders to individuals, tribes and customs were graded in accordance to a variety of criteria often ignored by current Western society. Spiritual advancement, virtue, piety, wisdom, and artistic achievements appeared to mark the man/woman of high achievement. Thus, one tribe in Ethiopia may be deemed ‘savage,’ whilst another be considered ‘virtuous.’ Such observations are testament to the historical integrity of the Greeks.

The words of antiquity have been reverberated by more modern scholars. French Egyptologist, Constatin-François Volney (1757-1820), claims that the Egyptians were the ‘first people to attain the physical and moral sciences necessary to civilized life.’ Furthermore, the Frenchman stated how:

“It was, then, on the borders of the Upper Nile, among a Black race of men, that was organized the complicated system of worship of the stars, considered in relation to the productions of the earth and the labors of agriculture; and this first worship, characterized by their adoration under their own forms and national attributes, was a simple proceeding of the human mind.” [Volney’s Ruins; or, Meditation on the Revolutions of Empires, Boston, J. Mendum, 1869.]

Gerald Massey made similar admissions. Massey devoted the last 30 years of his life to elucidate the African origins of Christianity. Massey was unequivocal in his assertion that the human origins must:

”be sought for in Africa, the birthplace of the black race, the land of the oldest known human types, and of those which preceded and most nearly approached the human…Aethiopia and Egypt produced the earliest civilization in the world and it was indigenous (italics added). So far as the records of language and mythology can offer us guidance, there is nothing beyond Egypt and Aethiopia but Africa…”[Massey G., A Book of the Beginnings, Vol 2, Williams and Norgate, 1881, p. 599.]

Masey’s acknowledgment of Black Africa is in stark comparison to then contemporary German Egyptologists, Bunsen and Brugsch, who like many postulated an Asian origin for Egypt.

Many Europeans have paid homage to the achievements of the Ethiopians. Massey, and Volney (see last two quotations) were categorical in equating the Ethiopian with the dark-skinned African. But since these scholars were not around during these times, they cannot provide an observational basis for such assertions. Moreover, we may question who exactly were the Ethiopians — for after all, the current day inhabitants of the region, may have been different to those who helped mould successive civilizations. We can gain an insight by looking into the etymology of the word. Secondly, we can focus on what was observed by the Greek scholars of antiquity.

Ethiopia is the English transliteration of the Greek work “Αιθιοπα” (or Aithiopia) which is said to originate from the Greek word Αιθιοψ” or “aithiops.” The literal translation of ”aithops” is ”charred or burnt.” ”Aithops” is composed of two words – αιθιω” (meaning “I burn”) and “ωψ” (meaning face or complexion) – which roughly gives us the English translation of those with burnt faces. Whilst the ethymology of ”Ethiopia” could suffice in infering the contributions made by ancient Africans, one could also rely upon the historical observations made by some of scholars of European antiquity. Among these scholars include the so called ‘father of [European] history,’ and supposedly the ‘first genuine scientist in [European] history.’

 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO HUMANITY – MADE BY BLACKS

Besides noting the influence Ancient Egyptians wielded in shaping succeeding Western civilisations, the Greek scholars went further to detail the physical appearances of those they encountered.

Aristotle, noted for his Ethical contributions, attempted to assign his ‘doctrine of the mean’ to ethnicities:

“Too black a hue marks the coward as witness Egyptians and Ethiopians and so does also too white a complexion as you may see from women, the complexion of courage is between the two.”
[Physiognomics, Vol. VI, 812a]

Not only does Aristotle comment on the complexion of the Egyptians (and Ethiopians), but he goes further, making references to the hair of the Africans:

“Why are the Ethiopians and Egyptians bandy-legged? Is it because the bodies of living creatures become distorted by heat, like logs of wood when they become dry? The condition of their hair supports this theory; for it is curlier than that of other nations, and curliness is as it were crookedness of the hair.” [Ibid Book XIV, p. 317]

Aristotle was the personal tutor of Alexandra the Great, who himself built a colony (Alexandria) in Egypt. Many question whether Aristotle, himself, was initiated into the mysteries of Ancient Egypt – subsequently, documenting what he was taught there in more than 150 philosophical treatises accredited to his name. Whether, he did indeed travel to Egypt remains open to mere speculation; however, there are a number of Greek scholars who did make the journey, and who did detail their observations with unquestionable clarity. Herodotus, in The Histories, repeatedly refers to the Egyptians as ‘black skinned with wholly hair.’ The complexion of the Egyptians is further implied in the following quotation:

“The Dodonaeans called the women doves because they were foreigners, and seemed to them to make a noise like birds. After a while the dove spoke with a human voice, because the woman, whose foreign talk had previously sounded to them like the chattering of a bird, acquired the power of speaking what they could understand. For how can it be conceived possible that a dove should really speak with the voice of a man? Lastly, by calling the dove black the Dodonaeans indicated that the woman was an Egyptian. And certainly the character of the oracles at Thebes and Dodona is very similar. Besides this form of divination, the Greeks learnt also divination by means of victims from the Egyptians.”
[Herodotus: The Histories, c 430 BCE, Book 2, 57]

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Additional evidence is offered by Lucian, a Greek historian who supposedly travelled to the region in 125BC. In his historical text, Navigations, the writer introduces two Greeks, Lycinus and Timolaus, who are discussing:

Lycinus (describing a young Egyptian): “This boy is not merely black; he has thick lips and his legs are too thin . . . his hair worn in a plait behind shows that he is not a freeman.”

Timolaus: “But that is a sign of really distinguished birth in Egypt, Lycinus, All freeborn children plait their hair until they reach manhood. It is the exact opposite of the custom of our ancestors who thought it seemly for old men to secure their hair with a gold brooch to keep it in place.” [Lucian, Navigations, paragraphs 2-3]

Diodorus, Greek historian, who was said to have travelled to Egypt around 60BC shared the historical insights made by earlier scholars:

“There are also numerous other Aithiopian tribes [i.e. besides those centered at Meroe]; some live along both sides of the river Nile and on the islands in the river, others dwell in the regions that border on Arabia [i.e. to the east], others again have settled in the interior of Libya [i.e. to the west]. The majority of these tribes, in particular those who live along the river, have black skin, snub-nosed faces, and curly hair”. [Diodous Siculus, Bibliotheke, 3. Translated by Tomas Hagg, in Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, vol. II: From the Mid-Fifth to the First Century BC (Bergen, Norway, 1996)]

However, some of the observations made by other Greek scholars appear to contradict the findings made earlier in this essay. Strabo (63BC-24AD) is well known for his geographical writings he recorded during his travels to Europe, Asia and Africa. Strabo, after travelling to both India and East Africa made the following observation:

”The whole of India is traversed by rivers. . . . As for the people of India, those in the south are like the Aethiopians in colour, although they are like the rest in respect to countenance and hair (for on account of the humidity of the air their hair does not curl), whereas those in the north are like the Egyptians.”

However, as was stated in response to Murdoch’s assertion, the ethnic composition of Egypt is likely to have changed from time to time. Especially when we consider that the various dynasties enabled the Ancient Civilization to wield power for more than a whooping 3000 years. After the Second Persian Invasion (343-332B.C.E—note Herodotus would have been writing 100 years prior to this) the ethnic composition would have undoubtedly changed. Indeed, the ethnic composition has always been changing; and whilst Nubia had remained largely African over history’s discourse, the various migrations and wars prompted by Asian foreigners, intermittently resulted in a larger ‘mixed-race’ presence in Lower Egypt. Moreover, if Egypt, after years of invasions by other people and nations was a distinctly Black nation—according to the writings of Herodotus and other Greek scholars—then would it not be reasonable to assume that it was more so before these invasions occurred?

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The supposed African character of Ancient Egypt (especially with the early remnants of the civilization) has been echoed by more modern European scholars. Noted French Egyptologist Gaston Maspero—with as much confidence as Cheik Anta Diop—argued that:

”By the almost unanimous testimony of ancient historians, they [the Egyptians] belong to an African race which first settled in Ethiopia on the Middle Nile: following the course of the river they gradually reached the sea.” [Gaston Maspero, The Dawn of Civilization, 1894]

Moreover, Eugen Georg, in a break from the earlier white supremacists of Germany, speaks of a:

”…world-wide dominance of Ethiopian representatives of the black race. They were supreme in Africa and Asia. In upper Egypt and India they erected mighty religious centers and mastered a perfect technique in the molding of bronze — and they even infiltrated through Southern Europe for a thousand years.”[The Adventure of Mankind (1931) p. 121,]

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ADVANCEMENT

The possession of knowledge, unless accompanied by a manifestation and expression in action, is like the hoarding of precious metals – a vain and foolish thing. Knowledge, like wealth, is intended for use. [Kemetic axiom]

Over the last few months, black people have been bombarded with a number of demoralising stories. Stories which highlight the injustices several individuals of African descent have had to face. The Ferguson shootings; Eric Garner; and the endless discussion over cultural appropriation. The responses have been great. They have also been justified. But such responses are miniscule steps towards reclaiming our great heritage.

Negativity only festers; whilst positivity fosters, it prospers.

The media loves to depict the incessant ordeals Africans have to face: Ebola, HIV, police criminality, and oh wait: do they know it’s Christmas time? Responding to these claims – by educating those who may struggle to see through the veil of deceit – is a start. But if we focus the scope of our discourse in reaction to the inflammatory propaganda we have become acquainted to, we would be granting permission to the powers that be to determine the discussions which must ensue – we would be slowing the progression of our inevitable return. The news does not seek to empower you; they leave you with stories which stir up fear. Likewise, most of the black discourse is shrouded with negativity. We must nonetheless focus on such issues; valiantly defending one another. But we must go a step further. We must recognise the beauty and power which lies inherent with the propagation of positivity.

”A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots” [Marcus Garvey]

Akin to the Kemetic proverb, ‘Know thyself,’ Garvey noted the necessity for individuals to acknowledge the achievements of one’s ancestors, one’s culture – ultimately, one’s history. Europeans cite the Greeks as their forefathers. And with Europe succumbing to the dark ages during the 1400s, it was not until the polymaths of the Renaissance era began to rediscover the values of Greco-Roman civilisation that the region began to thrive (C.A Diop 1991). The Chinese often allude to the Yuan dynasty and Confucianism when explaining the values which assisted to underpin their prior Civilizations and indeed their forthcoming upsurge. The Indians have a plethora of historical advancements – values staunchly rooted in Buddhism and Hinduism. So what about Africa? Have our forefathers been forever grovelling to the Wise Christian European, whilst doing little to form any sizeable civilization, culture or religion – of which any traceable history would be located?

Focusing on the historical achievements of your ancestors will empower you – giving you the confidence, acknowledging the issues they themselves faced, to surmount any adversities we may face. The knowledge of a great African heritage must be given to younger generations. They cannot reach adolescence blindly accepting the image of the useless ‘untamed Negro’.

The last quote I will leave you with is from Hegel:
“The peculiarly African character is difficult to comprehend, for the very reason that in reference to it, we must quite give up the principle which naturally accompanies all our ideas-the category of Universality.”
Hegel, this one time, is right. As an African, amongst the company of other ‘races,’ I have always felt different. Some pan-Africans may embrace Black Supremacist beliefs but this would be untenable; it would leave you culpable of the same crimes as the oppressors. For every culture, ‘race’, ethnicity – what ever term you deem appropriate– has made significant contributions to humanity. Nevertheless, as an African, I have accepted how: we walk differently, talk differently, heck we obviously dance differently. And once you shatter the conception of normality being adequate, you really do start to realise that being different is pretty special.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Note quotes from Greek scholars can be gleaned from the following site (The Fordham University African Sourcebook):

*http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/africa/africasbook.asp

*Snowden Jr., Frank M. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1970;

*Massey G., A Book of the Beginnings, Vol 2, Williams and Norgate, 1881

*Volney’s Ruins; or, Meditation on the Revolutions of Empires, Boston, J. Mendum, 1869.

*Williams C, The Destruction of Black Civilisation, Third World Press,U.S.; New edition edition (21 Oct. 1994)

*Diop CA, Civilisation or Barbarism, Lawrence Hill and Co, 1991

 

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